Technical Center for Paradigm Exploration Company

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Introduction to Well Logging

Wireline well logging is one of the fundamental technologies for hydrocarbon exploration. Depending upon the depth drilled, the complexity of the formations and the type of well drilled (exploratory or development), we will run one or two of the most simple logs to a dozen of the most complex logs.

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Vertical Drilling Multi-Stage Frac - Sandstone / Gas

This video shows the steps we undertake when we have a well with multiple sandstone reservoirs that need to be stimulated with fracture treatments. It also provides some basic information about how a well is completed for production.

Introduction to Petroleum Geology

With the permission of the website owner, we are providing a link here (by clicking the image to the left) to one of the best websites we have found that can be used to introduce petroleum geology to prospective investors.This website is completely independent from Paradigm and has been used since 1996 as a resource by high school teachers and college instructors.

Micro-Aeromagnetic Surveys

Rocks and sediments have varying amounts of magnetic minerals in them. In broad terms, igneous and metamorphic rocks (basement rocks) have higher magnetic mineral concentrations than the overlying sediments, where most of the oil and gas is found. We observe that the largest "magnetic anomalies" over a given sedimentary basin originate from the variations in magnetic mineral content in the basement rocks. These anomalies can be tens or even hundreds of times greater than those that might be produced by magnetic mineral concentrations in the overlying sediments.

Hydrocarbons are generated and/or trapped at depth and leak in varying quantities to the surface. The oxidation of the migrating hydrocarbons by bacteria and other microbes produces magnetic minerals in the sediments, which have been observed by laboratory analysis of cuttings taken during the drilling process. We also know that these shallower magnetic bodies produce anomalies of shorter wave length than the anomalies produced by the deeper magnetic bodies in the basement rocks.

The detection of the shallow anomalies that overlie deposits of oil and gas starts with data gathered by low-level and close-grid flights of airborne magnetometers. Then the data are processed, using sophisticated mathematics, to eliminate the effects of basement rocks, the earth's magnetic field and cultural contamination from structures on or near the surface, such as railroad tracks, pipelines, bridges, towers, etc. Our shareholders and investors can find, in their respective portals, more details about this technology, our vendors, and their historical results.

Magnetotelluric Surveys

We sometimes conduct magnetotelluric (MT) surveys to measure natural variations of electrical and magnetic fields at the Earth's surface at depths below 1,000 feet. While seismic imaging is able to describe subsurface structure, it cannot detect the changes in resistivity associated with hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-bearing formations. MT does detect resistivity variations in subsurface structures, which can differentiate between structures bearing hydrocarbons and those that do not.

Resistivity is correlated with different rock types. High-velocity layers are typically highly resistive, whereas sediments - porous and permeable - are typically much less resistive. While high-velocity layers are an acoustic barrier and make seismic ineffective, their electrical resistivity means the magnetic signal passes through almost unimpeded. This allows MT to see deep beneath these acoustic barrier layers, complimenting the seismic data and assisting interpretation. The image to the left is a short section of a comparison between a telluric log taken before drilling and a mud log/lithologic log taken after drilling of a well drilled in 2010 in Grant County, OK. It shows excellent correlation before and after drilling of the depth, thickness and fluid content of possible reservoirs. The full comparison is available to those who have access to our shareholder and investor portals.